It comes after PM Boris Johnson's bid to call a snap election in October was defeated for a second time.
Opposition MPs refused to back it, insisting a law blocking a no-deal Brexit must be implemented first.
In all, 293 MPs voted for the prime minister's motion for an early election, far short of the two thirds needed.
Mr Johnson will be holding a meeting with his cabinet in Downing Street later this morning.
Parliament was suspended - or prorogued - at just before 02:00 BST on Tuesday.
As Speaker John Bercow - who earlier announced his resignation - was due to lead MPs in a procession to the House of Lords to mark the suspension, a group of angry opposition backbenchers appeared to try to block his way.
Late into the night, MPs also burst into song on the Commons benches, singing traditional Welsh and Scottish songs.
It is normal for new governments to suspend Parliament - it allows them to schedule a Queen's Speech to set out a fresh legislative programme - but the length and timing of the prorogation in this case has sparked controversy.
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