Erdogan is scheduled to meet his Serbian counterpart Aleksandar Vucic and the country's parliament speaker. They will also hold talks on bilateral issues and sign a range of agreements.
The leaders are also expected to attend the Turkey-Serbia Business Forum.
Erdogan will also visit the Damad Ali Pasha Tomb in Belgrade Fortress, an Ottoman structure which is undergoing renovation by a Turkish development agency.
He will also visit the Sokullu Mehmet Pasha Fountain, another Ottoman-era structure in Belgrade, before going to the southern Muslim-majority city of Novi Pazar on Wednesday.