State-run news channel Al-Ekhbariya said the missile “was of limited size (and) no injuries or damage” was reported.
The missile was destroyed near Riyadh’s King Khaled international airport, which was functioning normally, it added.
Yemen’s Iran-backed Houthi rebels claimed they had fired the missile, targeting the airport, the Houthi Al-Masirah television said.
Saudi Arabia’s southern neighbour Yemen has been torn apart by a war between the Saudi-backed government of President Abedrabbo Mansour Hadi and Houthi rebels backed by Iran.
A Saudi-led coalition intervened in 2015 to prop up Hadi’s government after the Shia Houthi rebels seized the capital Sana’a.
The rebels continue to hold much of the country.
United Nations-backed talks have failed to broker a political settlement to end the fighting, which has left more than 8,600 people dead since the coalition intervened.
A cholera outbreak has claimed more than 2,100 lives in Yemen since April as hospitals struggle to secure supplies amid a coalition air and sea blockade.
The UN has warned Yemen now stands on the brink of famine.