Responding to calls on social media, around 200 protesters gathered in front of the country's parliament and marched to the city center, and clashed with security forces.
Police detained five people for making insults, setting off fireworks, or ignoring official warnings.
Pauline Krikke, the mayor of The Hague, said the protests were being called off due to security concerns.
Another group of activists dubbed Red Vests announced an anti-government protest in the central city of Utrecht on Jan. 13.
Earlier, in a social media post, the group said they would protest in Utrecht for a stronger welfare state, adding that they were different from Yellow Vest protesters.
The Yellow Vest protests first started in France on Nov. 17 as a reaction to fuel tax hikes but quickly took on larger themes and also spilled over to other European countries.