The meeting, which was closed to the media, started at 7.40 p.m. local time (1640GMT) and lasted for three hours and 15 minutes.
Details of the meeting were not released to the media.
Tillerson is on a two-day working visit to Turkey.
He is expected to meet his Turkish counterpart Mevlut Cavusoglu on Friday to discuss bilateral relations, particularly the U.S. support for the PYD/PKK terrorist group, and international developments. The meeting is expected to be followed by a joint news conference.
Earlier Thursday, Erdogan separately met Council of Europe Secretary General Thorbjorn Jagland, United Nations Refugee Agency's High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi, and Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby.