The prisoners were freed after an operation conducted by the forces in the province's Kajaki district late on Thursday, spokesman Jawid Saleem said on Friday.
At least two Taliban militants were shot dead during the rescue mission.
The prisoners were jailed for alleged offences including cooperating with the government to spy on the Taliban and not abiding by the militants' rules, Salem added.
They were kept in poor conditions, not fed properly and were often tortured by the militants.
They are now in a military facility in Helmand and will rejoin their families later on Friday.
Over 350 prisoners have been released from four Taliban prisons in Helmand over the past three months, Salem said.
According to the latest report of the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, the insurgents control nine of 14 districts in Helmand and 56 per cent of the population.
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